Born on May 6, 1856 in Moravia, Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist who, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed the field of psychoanalysis. Freud developed many theories including those that focus on the unconscious, the interpretation of dreams, Id, ego, and super ego, and what is referred to as the psychosexual development theory. Psychosexual development is a theory that Freud based upon the Greek tragedy by Sophocles Oedipus Rex and is often referred to as the Oedipus Complex.
The Oedipus Complex teaches that the unconscious holds repressed thoughts that boys have a desire to have sexual intercourse with their mothers, while wanting to murder their father. The theory isn’t limited solely to males, as Freud believed that girls had a sexual attraction to their fathers; this was later referred to as the Electra Complex. Freud taught that these unconscious thinking patterns form during several stages of development until they are eradicated by normal, healthy sexual development. Freud’s theory of psychosexual development is divided into five stages. These are oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. Freud’s theory was an important factor to his teachings based upon the development of the human personality.
The oral stage occurs in an infant’s life from birth to 18 months. During this time, an infant is focused with receiving oral pleasure. This occurs through breast or bottle feeding, or sucking on a pacifier. It is believed that if an infant receives too much or too little oral stimulation, they may develop a fixation or a personality trait that is fixated on oral gratification. It is believed that these people may focus on activities that involve the mouth such as over eating, biting the fingernails, smoking, or drinking. The theory states that these people may develop personality traits such as becoming extremely gullible or naive, always following others and never taking the lead, and becoming extremely dependent upon others.
The anal stage is directly related to a child’s awareness of bowel control and gaining pleasure through the act of eliminating or retaining feces. Freud’s theory puts the anal stage between 18 months and three years. It is believed that when a child becomes fixated on receiving pleasure through controlling and eliminating feces, a child can become obsessed with control, perfection, and cleanliness. This is often referred to as anal retentive, while anal expulsive is the opposite. Those who are anal expulsive may be extremely disorganized, live in chaos, and are known for making messes.
Freud believes the phallic stage or the Oedipus or Electra complexes occurs during a child is three to six years of age. The belief is that male children harbor unconscious, sexual attraction to their mothers, while female children develop a sexual attraction to their father. Freud taught that young boys also deal with feelings of rivalry with their father. These feelings naturally resolve once the child begins to identify with their same sex parent. By identifying with the same sex parent, the child continues with normal, healthy sexual development. If a child becomes fixated during this phase, the result could be sexual deviance or a confused sexual identity.
The latency stage is named so because Freud believed there weren’t many overt forms of sexual gratification displayed. This stage is said to last from the age of six until a child enters puberty. Most children throughout this age form same sex friendships and play in a manner that is non-sexual. Unconscious sexual desires and thoughts remain repressed.
Freud believed that after the unconscious, sexual desires are repressed and remain dormant during the latency stage, they are awakened due to puberty. This stage begins at puberty and develops with the physiology changes brought on through hormones. The prior stages of development result in a focus on the genitals as a source for pleasure and teens develop and explore attractions to the opposite sex. The genital stage is the last stage of the psychosexual development theory.
Freud's Theory of Psychosexual Development Essay
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Psychology is defined as the science of mind and behavior its immediate goal is to understand humanity by both discovering general principles and exploring specific cases. There have been numerous developments of psychology thanks to the magnificent works of Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, and Sigmund Freud. Each discovery has its own point of view; Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Development point was made for parents and teachers challenge the child's abilities, Kohlberg’s theory of Moral Development was based on the understandings of moral concepts such as justice, rights, equality and human welfare. The Freud's Theory of Psychosexual Development centered on the effects of the sexual pleasure drive on the individual psyche.
Jean Piaget…show more content…
Doing his research Piaget noticed the children used classification which simple means they put certain things together in groups to have better understands of the of the common features. A more advanced type of grouping is Class Inclusion which basically means a sub-group inside of a group is known as class inclusion. Piaget came up with four different stages in his research; Sensori-motor, Pre-operational, Concrete operational, Formal operational. Sensori-motor is the stage that ranges from birth until they reach two. In this stage the baby looks at its surroundings and differentiates itself from everything else. The baby sees himself as an agent of action and begins to act intentionally, like if they shake their rattle they will hear a noise that they created. From the ages of 2-7 the Pre-operational stage is in play where the child begins to learn language and to recognize objects by pictures in the mind and words heard. Also in this stage the child starts to group together certain objects by classifications, group together all blue toys without caring about the type of toy or putting all the same type of toys together regardless of color. At the age of 7-11 Concrete operational stage the child will start thinking logically about objects and events as in the conservation of number, mass, and weight. Formal operational is the final stage starts at 11 and goes up and can think logically