Soal Essay Hak Asasi Manusia Demo

TEMPO.CO, Jakarta - Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI) dan Change.org melakukan kerja sama survei persepsi publik soal permasalahan di Papua. Survei dilakukan pada November lalu selama tiga minggu itu, diikuti lebih dari 27 ribu responden. Ada tiga kelompok responden 2 persen warga Papua asli, 3 persen warga Papua non-asli, dan 95 persen warga Indonesia di luar Papua. Sebanyak 5,51 persen warga asli Papua menganggap persoalan Hak Asasi Manusia adalah persoalan terbesar di Papua.

“Berdasarkan hasil survei, permasalahan di Papua tidak hanya pendidikan, kemiskinan dan miras, namun juga pelanggaran HAM (8 persen),” ujar Cahyo Pamungkas dari tim Kajian Papua, LIPI, dalam keterangannya, Kamis, 14 Desember 2017.

Baca: Terungkap di Dokumen AS, Dana dan Senjata untuk Papua

Penyelesaian persoalan Papua, menurut Cahyo, tidak bisa dilepaskan dari penyelesaian HAM, baik dengan cara pengadilan ataupun rekonsiliasi. Direktur Eksekutif Amnesty International Usman Hamid juga membenarkan hasil survei tersebut. Menurut dia, pelanggaran HAM di Papua merupakan persoalan yang harus segera diselesaikan oleh pemerintah.

Usman menyebutkan, pemerintah seringkali keliru memandang kasus di Papua, seperti kasus Wasior dan Wamena sebagai satu-satunya kasus pelanggaran HAM terkait hak sipil dan publik. Menurut Usman, kasus Wasir juga menyangkut masalah kekerasan dengan dimensi gender, sosial, politik, hingga motif dasar ekonomi yang luas.

Kelirunya persepsi pemerintah, kata Usman, berdampak dalam menerapkan pembangunan ekonomi dan infrastruktur. “Jadi kalau pemerintah ingin menerapkan pembangunan ekonomi dan infrastruktur harus hati-hati. Timbul sengketa lahan, pelanggaran hak adat, kerusakan hutan,” ujar Usman, di Kantor LIPI, Jakarta Selatan, Kamis, 14 Desember 2017.

Baca: LIPI: Ada Perbedaan Persepsi Soal Kondisi Papua

Usman menuturkan, jika pemerintah hanya mengutamakan pembangunan ekonomi dan infrastruktur di Papua, maka hal itu bisa memproduksi pelanggaran HAM. Nantinya, dikhawatirkan demokrasi Indonesia yang otonomi khusus di Papua justru melahirkan kesenjangan ekonomi.

Usman mengatakan, pemerintah juga perlu membuka akses media untuk meliput kondisi Papua. Menurt dia, hal itu dapat menjembatani penyelesaian pelanggaran HAM dan mencegah pelanggaran baru. “Di Papua adalah sub-national authoritarian politik. Indonesia sudah demokratis, tapi Papua masih terjebak dalam otoritarianisme,” tutur Usman.

Deputi Kantor Staf Presiden Jaleswari Pramodhawardani mengatakan pemerintah telah menerbitkan Instruksi Presiden (Inpres) Nomor 9 Tahun 2017 tentang Percepatan Pembangunan Kesejahteraan di Papua dan Papua Barat. Presiden Joko Widodo (Jokowi), kata Jaleswari, melalui Inpres itu telah mengintruksikan lembaga-lembaga terkait untuk mengkaji persoalan Papua secara holistik. “Yang sering dianggap sebagai hambatan adalah mekanisme di lapangannya,” ujar Jaleswari, di Kantor LIPI, Jakarta Selatan, Kamis 14 Desember 2017.

Tokoh Papua, Peter Nales mengatakan, penyelesaian kasus pelanggaran HAM di Papua perlu dilakukan melalui pendekatan dialog. “Karena dialog tidak membunuh siapa pun. Dialog dikedepankan untuk mencegah konflik sekaligus menyelesaikan masalah Papua terkini,” kata Peter di Kantor LIPI, Jakarta Selatan, Kamis, 14 Desember 2017.

Peter menuturkan dialog itu kemungkinan akan diinisiasi pada 2018 mendatang. Menurut Peter, dialog diperlukan karena banyaknya perubahan demografi akibat migrasi besar-besaran di Papua. Perubahan itu, kata Peter, membuat orang asli Papua sudah menjadi minoritas di tanah mereka sendiri.

“Di Jayapura, Merauke, Timika, Sorong, orang Papua sudah menjadi minoritas. Ada kekhawatiran orang Papua semakin minoritas hingga suatu saat bisa punah. Memang kita butuh dialog,” tutur Peter.

Hasil survei juga menunjukkan, meskipun terdapat perbedaan persepsi dari masing-masing kelompok responden, ketiga kelompok sebesar 93 persen menilai bahwa dialog nasional untuk mencari solusi atas masalah di Papua dianggap penting dan penting sekali. Ketiga kelompok juga menilai bahwa Presiden Jokowi dan masyarakat Papua memegang peranan kunci dalam menyelesaikan masalah-masalah yang ada di Tanah Papua.

RIANI SANUSI PUTRI


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    Ughhhh! still need 10 empirical journal articles and a topic for my 15pg research paper!

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